UNDERSTANDING OWS

A 2017 White House report estimated that the true economic cost of the opioid epidemic was $504 billion in 2015.3

A 2017 White House report estimated that the true economic cost of the opioid epidemic was $504 billion in 2015.3

The likelihood of a patient developing long-term opioid use depends on how long that patient is initially prescribed an opioid.9

AFTER 1 DAY

AFTER 8 DAYS

AFTER 1 MONTH

6.0 %
of patients
still use opioids
1 YEAR LATER
13.5 %
of patients
still use opioids
1 YEAR LATER
29.9 %
of patients
still use opioids
1 YEAR LATER

The likelihood of a patient developing long-term opioid use depends on how long that patient is initially prescribed an opioid.9

AFTER 1 DAY

6.0 %
of patients
still use opioids
1 YEAR LATER

AFTER 8 DAYS

13.5 %
of patients
still use opioids
1 YEAR LATER

AFTER 1 MONTH

29.9 %
of patients
still use opioids
1 YEAR LATER
  • ANXIETY
  • YAWNING
  • PERSPIRING
  • EYES TEARING
  • RUNNY NOSE
  • GOOSEBUMPS
  • SHAKING
  • HOT FLASHES
  • NAUSEA
  • VOMITING
  • RESTLESSNESS
  • COLD FLASHES
  • ACHING BONES/ MUSCLES
  • MUSCLE SPASMS
  • STOMACH CRAMPS
  • ANXIETY
  • YAWNING
  • PERSPIRING
  • EYES TEARING
  • RUNNY NOSE
  • RESTLESSNESS
  • STOMACH CRAMPS
  • ACHING BONES/ MUSCLES
  • GOOSEBUMPS
  • SHAKING
  • HOT FLASHES
  • NAUSEA
  • VOMITING
  • COLD FLASHES
  • MUSCLE SPASMS

References:

  1. Shigakova F. Clinical manifestations of the opiate withdrawal syndrome. Int J Biomed. 2015;5(3):151-154.
  2. Kleber H. Opioids: detoxification. In: Galanter M, Kleber, HD, eds. Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press;1999:251-269.
  3. The Whitehouse Council of Economic Advisers. The Underestimated Cost of the Opioid Crisis. The Whitehouse Council of Economic Advisers. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/images/The Underestimated Cost of the Opioid Crisis.pdf. Accessed March 6, 2018.
  4. Kosten TR, George TP. The neurobiology of opioid dependence: implications for treatment. Sci Pract Perspect. 2002;1(1):13-20.
  5. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 2019 Medicare Advantage and Part D Advance Notice Part II and Draft Call Letter. CMS.gov Website. https://www.cms.gov/Newsroom/MediaReleaseDatabase/Fact-sheets/2018-Fact-sheets-items/2018-02-01.html. Accessed March 6, 2018.
  6. Aetna Inc. Fighting prescription drug abuse. Aetna on the Issues Website. https://news.aetna.com/2017/10/fighting-prescription-drug-abuse/. Accessed March 6, 2018.
  7. Cigna Corporation. Cigna is Committed to Reducing Opioid Use: Removing OxyContin from Group Commercial Drug Lists on 1/1/18. Cigna News HQ Businesswire Website. http://cigna.newshq.businesswire.com/press-release/cigna/cigna-committed-reducing-opioid-use-removing-oxycontin-group-commercial-drug. Accessed March 6, 2018.
  8. Tedeschi B. A ‘civil war’ over painkillers rips apart the medical community – and leaves patients in fear. STAT. https://www.statnews.com/2017/01/17/chronic-pain-management-opioids/. Updated January 17, 2017. Accessed March 8, 2018.
  9. Shah A, Hayes CJ, Martin BC. Characteristics of Initial Prescription Episodes and Likelihood of Long-Term Opioid Use – United States, 2006-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Mar 17;66(10):265-269.
  10. Rosenblum A, Marsch LA, Joseph H, Portenoy RK. Opioids and the treatment of chronic pain: controversies, current status, and future directions. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;16(5):405-416.
  11. Handelsman L,Cochrane KJ, Aronson MJ, Ness R, Two new rating scales for opiate withdrawal. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1987;13(3):293-308.
  12. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
  13. Kosten TR, O’Connor PG. Management of drug and alcohol withdrawal. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(18):1786-1795.